From the author of 1491—the best-selling study of the pre-Columbian Americas—a deeply engaging new history of the most momentous biological event since the death of the dinosaurs. More than 200 million years ago, geological forces split apart the continents. Isolated from each other, the two halves of the world developed radically different suites of plants and animals. When Christopher Columbus set foot in the Americas, he ended that separation at a stroke. Driven by the economic goal of establishing trade with China, he accidentally set off an ecological convulsion as European vessels carried thousands of species to new homes across the oceans. The Columbian Exchange, as researchers call it, is the reason there are tomatoes in Italy, oranges in Florida, chocolates in Switzerland, and chili peppers in Thailand. More important, creatures the colonists knew nothing about hitched along for the ride. Earthworms, mosquitoes, and cockroaches; honeybees, dandelions, and African grasses; bacteria, fungi, and viruses; rats of every description—all of them rushed like eager tourists into lands that had never seen their like before, changing lives and landscapes across the planet. Eight decades after Columbus, a Spaniard named Legazpi succeeded where Columbus had failed. He sailed west to establish continual trade with China, then the richest, most powerful country in the world. In Manila, a city Legazpi founded, silver from the Americas, mined by African and Indian slaves, was sold to Asians in return for silk for Europeans. It was the first time that goods and people from every corner of the globe were connected in a single worldwide exchange. Much as Columbus created a new world biologically, Legazpi and the Spanish empire he served created a new world economically. As Charles C. Mann shows, the Columbian Exchange underlies much of subsequent human history. Presenting the latest research by ecologists, anthropologists, archaeologists, and historians, Mann shows how the creation of this worldwide network of ecological and economic exchange fostered the rise of Europe, devastated imperial China, convulsed Africa, and for two centuries made Mexico City—where Asia, Europe, and the new frontier of the Americas dynamically interacted—the center of the world. In such encounters, he uncovers the germ of today’s fiercest political disputes, from immigration to trade policy to culture wars. In 1493, Charles Mann gives us an eye-opening scientific interpretation of our past, unequaled in its authority and fascination. From the Hardcover edition.
The Art of Structures
This book describes the complete panorama of supporting structures and their function by describing how loads are sustained and transmitted to the ground. With a minimum of mathematics, the reader is guided through the analysis of some of the world's most famous designs and structures from a civil-engineering perspective. An intuitive approach is taken - the basics of equilibrium analysis are explained by visualizing the internal forces of specific structures with the aid of simple graphical tools. Ideal for anyone who needs an intuitive and practical approach to the design and appropriate sizing of load-bearing structures.
Nothing sucks more than losing your humanity in a government experiment. Now I’m something different, something special. And everyone wants a piece of me. Go ahead, give it a try, but don’t be shocked when I turn the tables and try to steal your soul because I am so very, very hungry… But I don’t want to eat everyone I meet. At least not in a bad way. I know Simon, that big, beastly shifter, and his buddy Gene, an actual djinn with a bottle, are after more than just my lust side. They want to offer me love. How crazy is that? Maybe I’ll give it a try if I survive the prophecy, you know the one that says I might just change the world. Keywords: djinn, genie, dragon, menage, threesome, paranormal romance, erotic romance, vampire, succubus