The Grandeur and Misery of the Social State
The legal history of the construction of the welfare state gives an idea of its greatness. But this easy-going sovereign, tolerant to protest and accountable for its subjects’ well-being, seems to be struck by misery today. Exposed to systemic financial risks due to the opening of its commercial borders, it is seeing its resources dwindling and its expenses increasing. Fearful doctors are rushing to its bedside. Some are prescribing one bleeding after another, while others are already drawing up its death certificate. What we need is not this lethal medicine, but a precise diagnosis of the welfare state.
Behind Closed Doors
Behind Closed Doors is grounded in the unprecedented national survey of the extent, patterns, and causes of violence in the American family. Based on a study of over 2,000 families, the authors provide landmark insights into this phenomenon of violence and what causes Americans to inflict it on their family members. The authors explore the relationship between spousal abuse and child abuse as well as abuse between siblings, violence by children against their parents, and the causes and effects of verbal abuse. Taken together, their analysis provides a vivid picture of how violence is woven into the fabric of family life and why the hallmark of family life is both love and violence. This is a comprehensive, highly readable account of interest to both the professional and the layperson on an important topic, which concerns the social well-being of us all.
Fifty Years of the International Court of Justice
To mark the fiftieth anniversary of the International Court of Justice, a distinguished group of international judges, practitioners and academics has undertaken a major review of its work. The chapters discuss the main areas of substantive law with which the Court has been concerned, and the more significant aspects of its practice and procedure in dealing with cases before it. It discusses the role of the Court in the international legal order, and its relationship with the UN's political organs. The thirty-three chapters are presented under five headings: the Court; the sources and evidences of international law; substance of international law; procedural aspects of the Court's work; the Court and the UN. It has been prepared in honour of Sir Robert Jennings, judge and sometime President of the Court.
The Spirit of Laws
Laws, in their most general signification, are the necessary relations arising from the nature of things. In this sense all beings have their laws: the Deity His laws, the material world its laws, the intelligences superior to man their laws, the beasts their laws, man his laws. They who assert that a blind fatality produced the various effects we behold in this world talk very absurdly; for can anything be more unreasonable than to pretend that a blind fatality could be productive of intelligent beings? There is, then, a prime reason; and laws are the relations subsisting between it and different beings, and the relations of these to one another. God is related to the universe, as Creator and Preserver; the laws by which He created all things are those by which He preserves them. He acts according to these rules, because He knows them; He knows them, because He made them; and He made them, because they are in relation to His wisdom and power. Since we observe that the world, though formed by the motion of matter, and void of understanding, subsists through so long a succession of ages, its motions must certainly be directed by invariable laws; and could we imagine another world, it must also have constant rules, or it would inevitably perish. Thus the creation, which seems an arbitrary act, supposes laws as invariable as those of the fatality of the Atheists. It would be absurd to say that the Creator might govern the world without those rules, since without them it could not subsist. These rules are a fixed and invariable relation. In bodies moved, the motion is received, increased, diminished, or lost, according to the relations of the quantity of matter and velocity; each diversity is uniformity, each change is constancy. Particular intelligent beings may have laws of their own making, but they have some likewise which they never made. Before there were intelligent beings, they were possible; they had therefore possible relations, and consequently possible laws. Before laws were made, there were relations of possible justice. To say that there is nothing just or unjust but what is commanded or forbidden by positive laws, is the same as saying that before the describing of a circle all the radii were not equal. We must therefore acknowledge relations of justice antecedent to the positive law by which they are established: as, for instance, if human societies existed, it would be right to conform to their laws; if there were intelligent beings that had received a benefit of another being, they ought to show their gratitude; if one intelligent being had created another intelligent being, the latter ought to continue in its original state of dependence; if one intelligent being injures another, it deserves a retaliation; and so on. But the intelligent world is far from being so well governed as the physical. For though the former has also its laws, which of their own nature are invariable, it does not conform to them so exactly as the physical world. This is because, on the one hand, particular intelligent beings are of a finite nature, and consequently liable to error; and on the other, their nature requires them to be free agents. Hence they do not steadily conform to their primitive laws; and even those of their own instituting they frequently infringe. Whether brutes be governed by the general laws of motion, or by a particular movement, we cannot determine. Be that as it may, they have not a more intimate relation to God than the rest of the material world; and sensation is of no other use to them than in the relation they have either to other particular beings or to themselves. By the allurement of pleasure they preserve the individual, and by the same allurement they preserve their species. They have natural laws, because they are united by sensation; positive laws they have none, because they are not connected by knowledge. And yet they do not invariably conform to their natural laws; these are better observed by vegetables, that have neither understanding nor sense. Brutes are deprived of the high advantages which we have; but they have some which we have not. They have not our hopes, but they are without our fears; they are subject like us to death, but without knowing it; even most of them are more attentive than we to self_preservation, and do not make so bad a use of their passions. Man, as a physical being, is like other bodies governed by invariable laws. As an intelligent being, he incessantly transgresses the laws established by God, and changes those of his own instituting. He is left to his private direction, though a limited being, and subject, like all finite intelligences, to ignorance and error: even his imperfect knowledge he loses; and as a sensible creature, he is hurried away by a thousand impetuous passions.
The Black Box Society
Every day, corporations are connecting the dots about our personal behavior—silently scrutinizing clues left behind by our work habits and Internet use. But who connects the dots about what firms are doing with all this information? Frank Pasquale exposes how powerful interests abuse secrecy for profit and explains ways to rein them in.
Autonomous Ground Vehicles
In the near future, we will witness vehicles with the ability to provide drivers with several advanced safety and performance assistance features. Autonomous technology in ground vehicles will afford us capabilities like intersection collision warning, lane change warning, backup parking, parallel parking aids, and bus precision parking. Providing you with a practical understanding of this technology area, this innovative resource focuses on basic autonomous control and feedback for stopping and steering ground vehicles.Covering sensors, estimation, and sensor fusion to percept the vehicle motion and surrounding objects, this unique book explains the key aspects that makes autonomous vehicle behavior possible. Moreover, you find detailed examples of fusion and Kalman filtering. From maps, path planning, and obstacle avoidance scenarios...to cooperative mobility among autonomous vehicles, vehicle-to-vehicle communication, and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication, this forward-looking book presents the most critical topics in the field today.
Covenant Marriage in Comparative Perspective
The doctrine of covenant has (re)emerged in a number of contemporary Jewish, Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox, and Islamic circles as a common trope to map and measure the spiritual dimensions of the marital union. The doctrine of covenant has also reemerged separately in a number of American states as a convenient means of strengthening the legal rules of marital formation and dissolution. This volume brings together jurists and theologians from each of these religious traditions in an effort to integrate and elaborate this covenant theology and law of marriage, as well as its essential contractual dimensions.
The Development and Effectiveness of International Administrative Law
This book contains essays addressing issues including: the role of international administrative law in the governance of international organizations, the contribution of international administrative tribunals, and problems of effectiveness and legitimacy in the design and operation of the institutions of international administrative law.
The Equality Illusion
In The Equality Illusion, 'the most influential young feminist in the country' (Guardian) and UK Feminista founder Kat Banyard argues passionately and articulately that feminism continues to be one of the most urgent and relevant social justice campaigns today. Women have made huge strides in equality over the last century. And yet: Women working full-time in the UK are paid on average 17% less an hour than men 1 in 3 women worldwide has been beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused because of her gender Of parliamentary seats across the globe only 15% are held by women and fewer than 20% of UK MPs are women 96% of executive directors of the UK's top hundred companies are men Structuring the book around a normal day, Banyard sets out the major issues for twenty-first century feminism, from work and education to sex, relationships and having children. She draws on her own campaigning experience as well as academic research and dozens of her own interviews. The book also includes information on how to get involved in grassroots action.
The Making of Labour Law in Europe
This is a re-issue of a book first published in 1986, which charts the origins of the labour laws of nine European countries: the Member States of the EEC in 1979 - Belgium, Britain, Ireland, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. The studies assembled here were originally written by national experts to explain the foundations of their national systems from the beginning of the industrial revolution until 1945. These are not, however, simply historical essays. Instead, they draw upon the writings of historians, sociologists, and other social scientists to explain the origins of labour law in these countries, and also the relationships between them. The book thus provides the essential underpinning to its companion, the new book, The Transformation of Labour Law in Europe, which charts the development of labour law in Europe since 1945.