l ments de culture g n rale
Avec les oraux de culture générale, on peut souvent parler d'un " second concours " dans bien des Écoles. La distribution des coefficients montre que rien n'est joué à l'issue de l'écrit : tout est encore possible. Et l'oral se travaille : le seul exemple des entretiens individuels des concours des Écoles de commerce le révèle aisément. Être soi-même est le produit d'un art. L'ouvrage présente ici une approche méthodique complète de cet exercice dans ce qu'il comporte d'essentiel. Mais l'oral est aussi culturel avec la " colle " classique de culture générale en Prépa commerciale à l'oral d'HEC et en Prépa littéraire aux ENS. Au fil de plus de quinze thèmes fondamentaux, l'ouvrage organise des exposés de culture générale en suivant à chaque fois un " plan-mouvement " et en inscrivant leurs contenus dans le contexte de l'histoire des idées et des sociétés, là où les idées prennent corps. Par notre approche, nous avons mis en oeuvre la nécessaire interdisciplinarité sans laquelle il n'y a pas de culture générale. Déclinés plus longuement, certains exposés intègrent la démarche de la dissertation, utile aux candidats à l'entrée en Année préparatoire à Sciences Po. et aux IEP, ainsi qu'aux concours administratifs. Contribution pluraliste au débat des idées comme à notre mémoire culturelle, les Éléments de culture générale aideront plus largement le public du premier cycle universitaire en Lettres, Philosophie et Sciences humaines, ainsi que tous les lecteurs soucieux de réflexion critique.
The Right to be Lazy and Other Studies
A Greek poet of Cicero's time, Antiparos, thus sang of the invention of the water-mill (for grinding grain), which was to free the slave women and bring back the Golden Age: "Spare the arm which turns the mill, O, millers, and sleep peacefully. Let the cock warn you in vain that day is breaking. Demeter has imposed upon the nymphs the labor of the slaves, and behold them leaping merrily over the wheel, and behold the axle tree, shaken, turning with its spokes and making the heavy rolling stone revolve. Let us live the life of our fathers, and let us rejoice in idleness over the gifts that the goddess grants us." Alas!, the leisure which the pagan poet announced has not come. The blind, perverse and murderous passion for work transforms the liberating machine into an instrument for the enslavement of free men. Its productiveness impoverishes them. A good workingwoman makes with her needles only five meshes a minute, while certain circular knitting machines make 30,000 in the same time. Every minute of the machine is thus equivalent to a hundred hours of the workingwomen's labor, or again, every minute of the machine's labor, gives the workingwomen ten days of rest. What is true for the knitting industry is more or less true for all industries reconstructed by modern machinery. But what do we see? In proportion as the machine is improved and performs man's work with an ever increasing rapidity and exactness, the laborer, instead of prolonging his former rest times, redoubles his ardor, as if he wished to rival the machine. O, absurd and murderous competition! That the competition of man and the machine might have free course, the proletarians have abolished wise laws which limited the labor of the artisans of the ancient guilds; they have suppressed the holidays. Because the producers of that time worked but five days out of seven, are we to believe the stories told by lying economists, that they lived on nothing but air and fresh water? Not so, they had leisure to taste the joys of earth, to make love and to frolic, to banquet joyously in honor of the jovial god of idleness. Gloomy England, immersed in protestantism, was then called "Merrie England." Rabelais, Quevedo, Cervantes, and the unknown authors of the romances make our mouths water with their pictures of those monumental feasts with which the men of that time regaled themselves between two battles and two devastations, in which everything "went by the barrel". Jordaens and the Flemish School have told the story of these feasts in their delightful pictures. Where, O, where, are the sublime gargantuan stomachs of those days; where are the sublime brains encircling all human thought? We have indeed grown puny and degenerate. Embalmed beef, potatoes, doctored wine and Prussian schnaps, judiciously combined with compulsory labor have weakened our bodies and narrowed our minds. And the times when man cramps his stomach and the machine enlarges its output are the very times when the economists preach to us the Malthusian theory, the religion of abstinence and the dogma of work. Really it would be better to pluck out such tongues and throw them to the dogs.
In Praise of Slow
Across the western world more and more people are slowing down. Slower is better: better work, better productivity, better exercise, better sex, better food. DON'T HURRY, BE HAPPY. Almost everyone complains about the hectic pace of their lives. These days, our culture teaches that faster is better. But in the race to keep up, everything suffers - our work, diet and health, our relationships and sex lives. Carl Honoré uncovers a movement that challenges the cult of speed. In this entertaining and hands-on investigation, he takes us on a tour of the emerging Slow movement: from a Tantric sex workshop in London to a meditation room for Tokyo executives, from a SuperSlow exercise studio in New York, to Italy, home of the Slow Food, Slow Cities and Slow Sex movements.
Introduction to Computational Plasticity
The book covers an introduction to the computational analysis of plasticity in engineering materials and structures. The general theory is presented which, wherever possible, is reduced to simple, one-dimensional forms to develop understanding and a good 'physical feel' for the theory. Implementations of the theory in to modern computer solution techniques are described and several examples given.