War Peace and International Security
This book examines and explains the dialectic of war and peace between the outbreak of WWI and the Russian annexation of Crimea in 2014. The theoretical inspiration is built upon Galtung’s concept of negative and positive peace, Aron ́s distinction between strategy and diplomacy, and Carr ́s theory of periodization. Here, the author compares globalization with the interwar period and examines how the first decade ́s positive peace, diplomacy, and big hopes were replaced by negative peace, and explains the growing role of military strategy which culminated after the Russian annexation of Crimea and the following military incidents between NATO and Russia. This volume will be of interest to teachers, students, and researchers in the fields of modern history, international security and peace studies.
Od Sarajeva po Hiro imu V lka a m r v prvn polovin 20 stolet
Monografie Od Sarajeva po Hirošimu. Válka a mír v první polovině 20. století sleduje na základě teorie Raymonda Arona a Johana Galtunga události první poloviny minulého století, především válečné konflikty a politická vyjednávání s nimi spojená. Autor se věnuje rozboru hlavních příčin válek a analýze vývoje mezinárodních vztahů s důrazem na problematiku míru a války. Analýza tohoto období zahrnuje přehled jednotlivých teoretických škol zabývajících se mezinárodní politikou a komplexní pojednání o proměňujícím se politickém ovzduší počátku 20. století a jeho dopadech na strategické uvažování čelních představitelů světové politiky. Klíčovou roli v této analýze sehrálo Galtungovo pojetí negativního a pozitivního míru – autor vymezuje válku a mír jako dvě základní podoby mezinárodního uspořádání.
Guide to the French defenses encountered by the German blitzkrieg in 1940 Includes finely detailed plans, diagrams, and schematics of forts, blockhouses, turrets, artillery pieces, tanks, and more Between the world wars, France constructed a vast and complex array of defenses designed to prevent German forces from penetrating the French heartland as they had during World War I. Among these was the famous Maginot Line, the last of the great gun-bearing fortifications, but France also built defenses along its coasts and in its territories in North Africa. Fully illustrated with photos, maps, and drawings, Fortress France describes the design and construction of these fortifications, discusses French defensive doctrine and strategy, and explains why these efforts proved unable to stop the German attack in the spring of 1940.
To Lose a Battle
The author has sifted through the vast Nazi archives and the fragmentary records of the beaten Allies to tell the story of the fall of France. The author also wrote "The Price of Glory: Verdun, 1916" and "The Fall of Paris 1870-71".
From the author of 1491—the best-selling study of the pre-Columbian Americas—a deeply engaging new history of the most momentous biological event since the death of the dinosaurs. More than 200 million years ago, geological forces split apart the continents. Isolated from each other, the two halves of the world developed radically different suites of plants and animals. When Christopher Columbus set foot in the Americas, he ended that separation at a stroke. Driven by the economic goal of establishing trade with China, he accidentally set off an ecological convulsion as European vessels carried thousands of species to new homes across the oceans. The Columbian Exchange, as researchers call it, is the reason there are tomatoes in Italy, oranges in Florida, chocolates in Switzerland, and chili peppers in Thailand. More important, creatures the colonists knew nothing about hitched along for the ride. Earthworms, mosquitoes, and cockroaches; honeybees, dandelions, and African grasses; bacteria, fungi, and viruses; rats of every description—all of them rushed like eager tourists into lands that had never seen their like before, changing lives and landscapes across the planet. Eight decades after Columbus, a Spaniard named Legazpi succeeded where Columbus had failed. He sailed west to establish continual trade with China, then the richest, most powerful country in the world. In Manila, a city Legazpi founded, silver from the Americas, mined by African and Indian slaves, was sold to Asians in return for silk for Europeans. It was the first time that goods and people from every corner of the globe were connected in a single worldwide exchange. Much as Columbus created a new world biologically, Legazpi and the Spanish empire he served created a new world economically. As Charles C. Mann shows, the Columbian Exchange underlies much of subsequent human history. Presenting the latest research by ecologists, anthropologists, archaeologists, and historians, Mann shows how the creation of this worldwide network of ecological and economic exchange fostered the rise of Europe, devastated imperial China, convulsed Africa, and for two centuries made Mexico City—where Asia, Europe, and the new frontier of the Americas dynamically interacted—the center of the world. In such encounters, he uncovers the germ of today’s fiercest political disputes, from immigration to trade policy to culture wars. In 1493, Charles Mann gives us an eye-opening scientific interpretation of our past, unequaled in its authority and fascination. From the Hardcover edition.
The Byzantine Economy
This is a concise survey of the economy of the Byzantine Empire from the fourth century AD to the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Organised chronologically, the book addresses key themes such as demography, agriculture, manufacturing and the urban economy, trade, monetary developments, and the role of the state and ideology. It provides a comprehensive overview of the economy with an emphasis on the economic actions of the state and the productive role of the city and non-economic actors, such as landlords, artisans and money-changers. The final chapter compares the Byzantine economy with the economies of western Europe and concludes that the Byzantine economy was one of the most successful examples of a mixed economy in the pre-industrial world. This is the only concise general history of the Byzantine economy and will be essential reading for students of economic history, Byzantine history and medieval history more generally.
The time-traveling Americans from the West Virginia town of Grantville find themselves caught in the middle of the Baltic War, with Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, launching a counterattack on the combined forces of France, Spain, England, and Denmark.